It was as big as a suburban mall before we knew what a suburban mall is. It was as well stocked as an urban shopping center before we knew what an urban shopping center is. And it was all in a single store downtown.
If you lived in Fort Worth—or even in a neighboring county—during the half century from 1920 to 1970, you probably have memories of Leonard’s Department Store: of riding its subway, of passing the legless street vendor (“Pretty paper!”) on the sidewalk outside the store, of exploring the store’s seemingly endless departments, of throwing Hasbro hissy fits until your parents let you ride the Santa’s Rocket Express monorail in Toyland at Christmas. (Photo from Lauren Leonard.)
Leonard’s called itself a “one-stop shopping center.” Hard to argue with that boast. Indeed, at Leonard’s you could buy a piano, a petticoat, or a packet of pumpkin seeds. A fur coat or a windmill. Leonard’s made its own pasta and candy. It even had its own creamery to make dairy products. It roasted its own coffee, baked its own bread, put its own Leonard’s brand on products: laundry detergent, bicycles, freezers. You could smoke a Leonard’s brand cigar while pushing a Leonard’s brand lawn mower lubricated by Leonard’s brand motor oil. The kingdom of Leonard’s contained a beauty salon, a grocery department, an auto service department, a farm department. Leonard’s even printed its own script as store currency.
But the sprawling kingdom of commerce that we remember began humbly. Brothers John Marvin and Obadiah Paul Leonard were born in Cass County in northeast Texas. The boys were five and one years old, respectively, in 1900. Father John was a farmer, but he and wife Emma Clementine briefly operated a small general store in Linden.
By 1915 Marvin Leonard was in Dallas, clerking for Lee W. Gardiner in Gardiner’s salvage and grocery business for $27.50 a week. Each morning before dawn Leonard and Gardiner went to the Dallas rail yards to buy unclaimed freight to sell at a low profit margin. (Green Thomas Leonard, listed above in the 1916 Dallas city directory as a painter at Dallas Coffin Company, was the eldest brother. Green and Marvin had the same address.)
In 1917, after the United States entered World War I, Marvin Leonard tried to enlist in the Army, but poor vision disqualified him. Instead he joined the Red Cross and applied for a passport for England and France. But the war ended on November 11, 1918, before Leonard was sent overseas. Within days Leonard moved to Fort Worth, beyond the sales territory of his mentor, Gardiner.
In Fort Worth Leonard bought the stock of a merchant who was going out of business. A month after the war ended, John Marvin Leonard on December 14, 1918 opened his own store at 111 North Houston, west of the courthouse, taking over the space of Texas Salvage and Storage. Leonard had learned his lessons well from Lee W. Gardiner: On its first day the first Leonard’s store sold $195 ($2,900 today) in merchandise—mostly canned goods.
The store originally measured just twenty-five by sixty feet. In the top photo Marvin is on the left wearing a white apron and holding a sack. In the bottom photo Marvin is on the left with hand on hip. Behind him is brother Green. (Photos from Lauren Leonard.)
Youngest brother Obadiah Paul joined John Marvin in 1919, and the store became “Leonard Brothers.” In 1920 Marvin and Obie were living above the store. Brother Green also worked at the store but lived on Arlington Heights (Camp Bowie) Boulevard.
This September 24, 1919 Star-Telegram ad lists the Leonard brothers among dozens of grocers selling a Quaker Oats cooker. I have enlarged listings of three merchants we still remember.
This modest classified ad is from the May 21, 1920 Star-Telegram.
By October 19 the ads were bigger.
By January 30, 1921 the brothers had apparently cornered the market in California prunes.
By June 9, 1922 the store no longer advertised salvage.
Photo from Down Historic Trails of Fort Worth and Tarrant County.
The Land of Leonard continued to expand. Looking northwest from the corner of Houston and Weatherford streets. (Photo from University of Texas at Arlington Library.)
By 1928 a Christmas ad featured Toyland with Daisy air rifles, roller skates, split reed doll cabs . . . “the nearest thing to paradise for the youngsters.”
In 1930 the brothers bought the block two blocks south of their original location and built a store that covered the block. Leonard’s had become the dominant retailer in Fort Worth.
In 1931 the brothers opened Everybody’s Store on Houston Street just north of Leonard’s Department Store. Everybody’s would move to a much larger building in 1948.
Marvin Leonard was an avid golfer. So avid that he built his own course. In January 1936 his Colonial Club golf course opened.
In 1941 Leonard persuaded the United States Golf Association to hold the U.S. Open at Colonial. Leonard sold the club and course to members in 1942.
Meanwhile downtown, by 1946 few shoppers would dispute the store’s claim to offer “everything you need under one roof.” (Ad from Pete Charlton’s “The Lost Antique Maps of Texas: Fort Worth & Tarrant County, Volume 2” CD.)
But Fort Worth continued to grow, and so did Leonard’s. In 1948 the brothers greatly expanded their retail realm—to six city blocks. (On the right, note the Metropolitan, Cadillac, and Morris Minor.) (Photo from Lauren Leonard.)
By 1950 Leonard’s had become “Greater Leonard’s.” (Photo from Down Historic Trails of Fort Worth and Tarrant County.)
The store’s advertising also expanded. This 1948 ad was in Fort Worth Press sports editor Pop Boone’s annual fishing special section.
Just in time for Christmas 1956 the store installed its Santa’s Rocket Express monorail in Toyland.
The 1960s brought more change. The M&O subway opened in 1963. (Ad is from the 1960 city directory.)
And in 1967, one year shy of the store’s golden anniversary, Charles Tandy bought Leonard’s Department Store for $8.5 million. The store (and its subway) continued to operate under the Leonard name until 1974, when Tandy sold the store to Dillard’s Department Stores. The M&O subway made its last run on August 30, 2002.
This commemorative plaque is in the 100 block of north Houston Street at the site of the first store.
John Marvin Leonard died on August 26, 1970 at age seventy-five.
Obadiah Paul Leonard died on December 25, 1987 at age eighty-nine.
The Leonard’s Department Store Museum is located at 200 Carroll Street.