This was the big one, the one that people have seen documented in news photos and film, heard about from parents, maybe even experienced firsthand. This was the “ain’t gonna take it anymore,” “enough is enough,” last-straw flood that brought about change after a century of intermittent catastrophes wrought by the natural resource that had been a major factor in Major Ripley Arnold’s selection of a site for the Army’s Fort Worth in 1849.
On May 17 rooftops became islands. Underpasses became swimming holes. Motorboats replaced automobiles as modes of transportation as streets became canals. Residents woke that morning to find that Fort Worth suddenly was Venice-on-the-Cross Timbers.
Flooding was worst on the west and north sides of town. Traditionally the point of reference for the high-water mark of the flood of forty-nine has been the Montgomery Ward building on West 7th Street. “Water stood almost to the second floor,” the Morning News reported. Water “lapped at the second floor” and “Water rose to the second floor,” the Star-Telegram reported on May 18.
Elsewhere, as Trinity tributary Farmer’s Branch creek flooded homes in nearby Liberator Village, Carswell Air Force Base dispatched one hundred military police officers to the flood zones to discourage looting. Police Chief Robert Dysert reported “some” looting. The West 7th and Lancaster street bridges were closed as wooden houses floating down the river snagged on the pilings of the bridges. The Star-Telegram reported that the West 7th Street bridge “trembled” as floating houses smashed into its pilings. Police Chief Dysert estimated that one-tenth of Fort Worth was under water. Property damage was estimated at $11 million ($104 million today). The Red Cross estimated that thirteen thousand people were homeless. (Fort Worth’s population was about 270,000.) Schools, churches, Will Rogers Coliseum, Carswell all became shelters for refugees. The state rushed ten thousand units of typhoid vaccine to Fort Worth. City-County Hospital at 4th and Jones streets became an inoculation center. Water fountains at schools were turned off, and school cafeterias boiled drinking water. Students were asked to bring boiled water in Thermos bottles for drinking.
This photo shows Lake West Side: The West 7th and Lancaster street bridges and the ever-besieged Holly city waterworks are in the upper left, Montgomery Ward and the old Chevy plant are in the upper right. Roughly centered in the photo from left to right, a line of utility poles marks White Settlement Road. The flat roofs of commercial buildings look like floating tennis courts. (Photo from Lockheed Martin.)
This photo, taken over Riverside, shows the flooding east of downtown. That’s Belknap Street running almost north to south. The cross-shaped building on the left is the Prince Hall Grand Lodge Mosque. Greenway Park on the other side of Belknap is under water. The smokestacks of the power plant can be seen in the curve of the river in the distance. (Photo from Tarrant County College NE.)
Front page of the Fort Worth Press on May 17 gave an early assessment of the flood. The numbers for the damages, homeless, and dead would rise as the floodwater rose.
Fort Worth’s water treatment plant, with its riverside location, was always at risk of flooding. Floodwater knocked out pumps at the plant. The water department even brought a steam-powered pump out of retirement. On May 20 the Star-Telegram reported that a replacement water pump motor had been rushed—with a law enforcement escort—from Indiana. The city’s water supply was restricted for four days.
More front-page headlines of the May 17 Press. Ironically, with water literally everywhere, finding safe drinking water was a challenge. Lack of water also restricted the output of the Press and shut down public schools. The rain gauge at Nutt Dam on the Trinity was swept away. The Clear Fork of the Trinity was the main source of floodwater.
The Star-Telegram reported that engineers said that the dam of Benbrook Lake—still under construction on the Clear Fork—would have prevented the flood. Dams upstream on the West Fork (Bridgeport, Eagle Mountain, Lake Worth) were mostly effective in preventing flooding from that fork of the river.
These are the front page headlines of the Star-Telegram and Press of May 18.
On May 18 both newspapers provided these summaries in their page 1 lead stories.
Front page of the Star-Telegram on May 19.
Behind Montgomery Ward a horse sought higher ground. (Photo from Tarrant County College NE.)
WBAP-TV news film of the flood of forty-nine:
More Channel 5 film of the flood of forty-nine:
The headlines, photos, and statistics are incredible. But the stories of individuals are more so. One family was burned out one day and washed out the next. This clip is from the Sweetwater Reporter.
Ed Warren, seventy-seven years old and blind, perched in a treetop for several hours before he was rescued. But Dee Pennington, sixty-eight, who had been rescued by two police officers in a boat, drowned when the boat capsized. In Forest Park Mrs. Jose Kent, eighty, clung to a Ferris wheel but was swept away and drowned.
Things could have been even worse. An official at the zoo said, “If the water had risen two feet deeper, there would have been 10-foot alligators swimming all over town.”
Colonial Country Club’s golf course, located beside the Clear Fork, also flooded. As did Farrington Field, which became a giant wading pool. LaGrave Field, home of the Fort Worth Cats, suffered, like the Terry family mentioned earlier, a double indignity: On May 15 LaGrave Field’s main grandstand was destroyed by fire. On May 16 the field was flooded by the nearby river.
Shortly after the flood the city of Fort Worth published an “album” of aerial photos:
Texas & Pacific’s Lancaster yards southwest of downtown. The flooded Clear Fork is on the left.
Looking west over the flooded Clear Fork. (Photo from Jack White Photograph Collection, University of Texas at Arlington Libraries.)
The Press on May 17 and the Star-Telegram on May 18 said the flood of 1949 was worse than the flood of 1922.
The Star-Telegram reported that ten people died in 1949. A historical marker on the river puts the death toll at eleven.
As had the floods of 1889, 1908, and 1922, the flood of 1949 led to flood-control measures. Fort Worth received an emergency federal appropriation to build a floodway. Voters approved a $7 million bond issue to finance levee improvements and to create Marine Creek Lake and Cement Creek Lake in the watershed of Marine Creek, a tributary of the Trinity. Clip is from the Dallas Morning News.
The water district and the Army Corps of Engineers took charge of an extensive makeover of the river during the 1950s and 1960s: In addition to the creation of lakes (such as Benbrook) and sturdier levees, the river channel was straightened and widened. Remnants of the old channel can still be seen on the west, north, and east sides of town.
In April 1956 Fort Worth’s Trinity River floodway was dedicated in ceremonies attended by a freshman U.S. representative named “Jim Wright.” Clip is from the Dallas Morning News.
Forty years later, to the day: