Long before Billy Bob’s Texas declared itself the world’s largest honky-tonk in 1981, long before Hank Williams recorded his classic song “Honky Tonkin’” in 1947, long before Sophie Tucker starred in a so-titled movie in 1929, even long before Chris Smith and Charles McCarron wrote the song “Down in Honky Tonk Town” in 1916, there were honky-tonks.
But where did that funny little word come from?
Determining the origin of words is notoriously difficult. The Oxford English Dictionary says the first use of the word—as honk-a-tonk—was in 1894 in the Daily Ardmoreite of Ardmore, Oklahoma.
Close but no buttered scone, OED. At a horse show in Dallas in 1887 W. T. Campbell had a horse named “Gen. Honk-a-Tonk.” Clip is from the August 14 Dallas Morning News.
So saith Wikipedia: “The earliest-known printed use of the word is a report in the Fort Worth Daily Gazette, January 24, 1889.” The Wikipedia article implies that the Honky Tonk theater on Main Street was in Fort Worth, but, alas, the Gazette report was actually a digest of Dallas news.
Discounting that claim of Fort Worth having a “Honky Tonk theater” in 1889, Wikipedia says Fort Worth was reported to have such a theater in 1892: “The terms honky tonk, honk-a-tonk, and honkatonk have been cited from at least . . . 1890 in the [Dallas] Morning News, and 1892 in the Galveston Daily News, which used the term to refer to an adult establishment in Fort Worth. Whether the word came from the name of a theater in Fort Worth or the theater in Fort Worth took its name from a generic term, the sound of the word honky tonk (or honk-a-tonk) and the types of places that were called honky tonks suggest that the word may be an onomatopoeic reference to the loud or boisterous music and noise heard at a honky tonk.”
Wikipedia also says the word may refer to the upright pianos made by William Tonk & Bros.
Wikipedia adds: “The fact that the early uses of the word in print mostly appear along a corridor roughly coinciding with cattle drive trails extending from Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas and into South-Central Oklahoma, suggests that the origin of the word may have been a localism spread by cowboys driving cattle to market.”
Honky-tonks began as saloons or theaters that served alcohol and presented entertainment tailored to the tastes of cowboys and other working-class people. This August 6, 1890 Dallas Morning News clip is one of the earliest to include a definition of the word. In Fort Worth such establishments would have been most common in Hell’s Half Acre.
Indeed, on January 7, 1897 the Register reported that the proprietor of a honk-a-tonk on Front Street (Lancaster Avenue) at the southern fringe of the Acre had skipped town.
And this April 3, 1897 Register clip shows a honk-a-tonk at Jones and 12th streets on the eastern fringe of the Acre.
The September 22, 1892 Dallas Morning News reported the arrest of a “variety actress” at a Fort Worth honk-a-tonk.
Honky-tonks did not present Shakespeare and Chekhov. For example, on April 8, 1894 the Gazette deemed the play “Shattered Idols” to be “trash” fit only for “honk-a-tonk theaters.”
On June 2, 1897 the Register reported that the city had granted a liquor license to George Bird Holland for his Holland’s Theatre “honk-a-tonk” but had denied a license to John Moore for his Standard Theatre. Both theaters were located in the Acre. On June 3 the Register editorialized about the unsavoriness of honk-a-tonk theaters in general and Holland’s in particular.
George Holland operated theaters in Fort Worth—in and out of the Acre—for years. In 1893 his theater was on 11th Street in the Acre near two Rusk (Commerce) Street “female boarding houses,” which was a euphemism for “brothels.”
The honk-a-tonks of the Acre reflected the Acre itself. Notwithstanding the Register’s opinion that the Standard Theatre was “spring violets” compared with Holland’s Theatre, these half-dozen clips show the Standard to have been more Venus flytrap than violets.
A newspaper headline writer is having a good day when he or she can write a headline that contains both honky-tonk and hoochie-coochie. All that’s missing is hurdy-gurdy. And so it was on October 7, 1901 when the Register reported raids at the state fair in Dallas.
By the new century some honky-tonks, such as John Moore’s Standard Theatre, were calling themselves “vaudeville theatres.” Ad is from the 1900 city directory.
We’ll never know for sure the complete role that Fort Worth may have played in the origin of the word and the type of venue, but remember this: “When you are sad and lonely and have no place to go, come to see me, Baby, and bring along some dough, and we’ll go . . .”